INTERNSHIP/ ATTACHMENT OPPORTUNITIES

The objective of the NuPEA Internship Program is to provide the youth with an opportunity for on the Job training and experience and to develop their ability to successfully take up employment opportunities in all sectors of the economy. NuPEA invites suitably qualfied and interested candidates to apply for internship/ attachment opportunity available in the departments mentioned below for a minimum period of 3 months and a maximum period of 6 months.

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BAADHI YA MASWALI YAULIZWAYO MARA KWA MARA - KAWI YA KINUKLIA


Utoaji wa nguvu za umeme nchini Kenya kwa sasa ni wa takribani megawati 2300 .Kwa ajili ya utekelezaji wa miradi ya Dira   2030 kunahitajika utoaji wa megawati zaidi za umeme hadi zaidi ya 16,000MW chini ya kipindi cha miongo miwili. Wakati vyanzo vyengine vya utoaji wa umeme vinapowekwa pamoja havifikii utaji unaokadiriwa kufikia 2030. Je, jawabu ni lipi? Bila shaka, kuna uhitaji wa utoaji waumeme kwa njia ya nuklia.

Vyanzo vya Kenya vya utoaji wa kawi ya umeme ni pamoja na utumiaji wa nishati ya mvuke, upepo, maji kwenye mabwawa na kutumia miale ya jua.

Makaa ya mawe na gesi yatajumuishwa katika mradi uliyoanzishwa September 2013, unaopania kuongeza kiwango cha stima kwa megawati alfu tano kufikia mwisho wa mwaka 2016. Nuklia nayo ikijumuishwa mwongo mmoja kuanzia sasa.

Vyanzo hivi vya kawi vitasaidia vyengine vilivyoko kuimarisha utoaji huo ili kustawisha viwanda, kubuni nafasi za kazi na utoaji bora wa bidhaa. Mipango kabambe kama vile kuwa na mfumo wa reli wa kutumia nguvu za umeme, Mji wa teknologia wa Konza, mpango wa uchukuzi wa LAPSSET utakaounganisha Lamu, Sudan ya Kusini na Ethiopia, pamoja na miradi kibao ambazo ni msingi wa ruwaza 2030 zinahitaji viwango vikubwa vya kawi.


 

Hapana. Kwa uchache Kenya inahitaji kuongeza uzalishaji wa stima hadi takriban megawati 16,000 kufikia mwaka wa 2030 ikilinganishwa na utoaji wa sasa wa kama megawati 1,700. Hata ikiwa Kenya itaweza kutumia nishati ya mvuke kwa ujumla, ikiwa ni wastani ya kati ya megawati 7000 na megawati 10,000, bado kuna nakisi kubwa ya kawi. Kwa hivyo mpango ulioratibiwa kutoa megawati 4000 kupitia kawi ya nuklia kufikia   mwaka wa 2030 ni mwafaka.


Kawi hiyo ni moja ya mipango ya utoaji wa nguvu za umeme isiyokuwa ya gharama kubwa. Hata hivyo nishati hiyo haiwezi kukidhi mahitaji ya umeme katika viwanda vikubwa vikubwa kwa vile kiwango chake ni cha chini mno. Aidha, hupatikana tu kwa muda, ama jua linapochomoza au wakati kuna kasi ya juu ya upepo.


Nguvu za kinuklia zinahitaji tahadhari ya hali ya juu. Misingi ya usalama ni muhimu na ni sharti yazingatiwe kwa umakini. Shirika la kimataifa la kawi ya kitonoradi (IAEA) lina miongozo thabiti kuzisaidia nchi zinazotoa kawi ya kinuklia. Kenya inaandaa misingi ya usimamizi bora huku usalama ukipewa kipaumbele.


Serikali inatoa mafunzo kwa wanasayansi chipukizi wa Kenya katika fani zote zinazohusika na kawi hii ya kinuklia.

Tangia mwaka wa 2012, kadri wanafunzi 16 wamesomea shahada za uzamili katika sayansi ya kinuklia huko Korea Kusini. Sita kati yao walifuzu mwezi February 2014.

Wanafunzi wengine wanasomea shahada za uzamili katika chuo kikuu cha Nairobi katika kitivo cha Sayansi na Teknolojia ya Nuklia. Hatua hii itaimarishwa katika kipindi cha mwongo mmoja ujao ili kuhakikisha kwamba Kenya ina wataalamu wanaohitajika katika nyanja hii.

 



Afua moja itakuwa ni kwa serikali kuugharamia mpango huu. Afua nyengine ni ya kupitia uwekezaji wa kibinafsi wa ujenzi wa kiwanda hicho na wafanyikazi wenye uzoefu na ujuzi. Na afua nyengine ni ya kutafuta usaidizi wa kifedha kwa njia ya mkopo.



Utafiti unaofanywa unalenga kubaini eneo mwafaka za ujenzi wa viwanda vya kinuklia nchini Kenya. Ni mambo mengi yanayozingatiwa katika utafiti wa kisayansi. Maeneo yatakayopendekezwa kisha yatachunguzwa kitaalamu kwa kina na ukete. Baadhi ya maswala yanayozingatiwa ni mazingira, uwepo wa vyanzo vya maji, uwezekano wa kuathiriwa na mtetemeko wa ardhi, na pia umbali na sehemu ambapo kawi hiyo itatumika.


Manufaa ya kwanza kabisa ni mapato kutokana na bidhaa na huduma. Pia, kutakuwa na ajira wakati wa ujenzi wa kiwanda na hata litakapoanza kuzalisha umeme. Fauka ya hayo kutakuwa na manufaa ya uimarishaji wa muundo msingi kupitia ujenzi wa barabara na asasi za afya na za maslahi ya kijamii. Na si hayo tu, faida nyengine itakuwa ni upatikanaji wa nguvu za umeme kwa bei nafuu.



Ndio. Kuvumbuliwa kwa mafuta ya petroli ni muhimu sana kwa Kenya kwani kutawezesha nchi kupata fedha za kigeni kutokana na mauzo ya mafuta hayo. Mapato hayo yatawezesha uboreshaji ya miundo msingi. Uvumbuzi huo, ukiambatanishwa na ujenzi wa kiwanda cha kinuklia basi unapiga msasa uwezekano wa kutekelezwa kwa Dira 2030.


Ufaransa inatoa zaidi ya asili mia sabini na nane ya nguvu zake za umeme kutoka kwa nuklia. Lakini Marekani ndiyo inayotoa kiwango kikubwa zaidi cha umeme kutoka kwa nuklia ulimwenguni kote. Japan, Russia, Korea Kusini, Ujerumani, Ukraine, Canada, China, Uingereza, Uswidi, Uhispania, Ubelgiji, India, Jamhuri ya Czech, Finland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Brazil, Afrika Kusini, Slovakia, Mexico, Romania, Argentina, Pakistan, Slovenia na Uholanzi ni miongoni mwa nchi zengine zinazotumia teknologia ya nuklia kuzalisha nguvu za umeme.  


Afrika Kusini ina viwanda viwili vya utoaji wa umeme wa nuklia.   Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Misri, Cote d’Ivoire, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda na Tunisia ni miongoni mwa mataifa yaliyo mbioni kupanga mikakati kuwezesha utumiaji wa nuklia kuzalisha umeme.


Viwanda vya kawi viwe ni vya makaa ya mawe, gesi ama nuklia, vinatumia mvuke kutengeza nguvu za umeme.   Vinafanya kazi kama birika kubwa lenye maji yanayochemka. Joto hilo hugeuza maji kuwa mvuke unaozungusha mitambo mikubwa ya kutoa nguvu za umeme. Tofauti ya pekee na viwanda vyengine ni kwamba viwanda vya nuklia vinatumia madini ya uranium kama chanzo cha joto.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS - NUCLEAR POWER


In order to realize the development agenda stipulated in Kenya Vision 2030, studies have shown that the country will require more than 17,000 MW of electricity by 2030. Currently the country is generating more than 2300MW from various energy sources including hydro, geothermal, thermal and wind. Under the 5000MW plus initiative, coal and gas will be tapped alongside geothermal and wind. This will raise the country’s generation capacity to almost 7000MW by 2017. Be that as it may, the country would still have a deficit even if all the domestic energy resources such as geothermal were fully exploited. Thus the country would need alternative sources to help realize Vision 2030. Based on these premises, nuclear energy has been identified as a stable, efficient and reliable source of electricity that will produce base load power to steer industrial development, stimulate economic growth, create jobs and above all, better the lives and lot of Kenyans.

 


Studies have demonstrated that it is cheaper to generate electricity from nuclear energy than from crude oil. The crude oil discovered in Turkana will be more economical for export and foreign exchange earnings than for generating electricity locally.


Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate its phasing out of nuclear power by 2022. Subsequently, reactors that started operation in 1980 or earlier were shut down. However, the decision was not based on any safety assessment. If Germany were to proceed with its nuclear phase-out policy and maintain carbon emission reduction, it would need to import about 20,000 MW of electricity as base load by 2020. Following this nuclear policy, France, Poland and Russia are anticipating increased electricity exports to Germany, mostly from nuclear energy.

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was an eye opener to nuclear industry players with regard to occurrence of nuclear accidents. Although it was a unique situation, the accident has led to further scrutiny of nuclear facilities thereby decreasing the chances of nuclear accidents occurring around the world. Current reactor designs have enhanced safety features. This, coupled with stringent regulations, has greatly diminished the probability of such accidents.


The nuclear power programme will create jobs locally both directly and indirectly. Human resource planning shows that over 5,000 workers will be directly involved in design, siting, bidding and construction of the nuclear power plant, majority of whom will be drawn from the local labour pool. Other jobs will be created in affiliated institutions such as the regulatory body, research institutes and nuclear training centres. Indirectly, it is expected that increase in power generation capacity will trigger industrial growth therefore creating more job opportunities for local people.


A country can purchase low enriched uranium fuel from international suppliers. Currently, IAEA is in the process of establishing a uranium fuel bank. This is meant to increase assurance of fuel supply and give more options for countries interested in peaceful use of nuclear energy like Kenya.

Supply of spare parts is specified during the bidding process. Contractual negotiations with the successful bidder should include supply of reactor components and maintenance services by the vendor during the operating lifetime of the nuclear power plant.


According to the classification adopted by IAEA, small modular reactors have an electric power output of less than 300 MW; medium sized reactors have an electric power output of between 300 and 700 MW; and large reactors have an electric power output of between 700 and 1,700 MW.


Yes. Kenya will use internationally acceptable criteria for reactor technology assessment; Common User Considerations (CUC) and Utility Requirements Design (URD), which will define the country’s considerations for the reactor type. A nuclear reactor supplier will be required to meet the considerations before concluding contract negotiations. This will ensure that the country gets a suitable nuclear reactor for its power plant.


Nuclear power is environment-friendly. It is among the lowest carbon dioxide emitters when emissions throughout the entire life cycle are considered.

Nuclear power contributes to energy supply security. Currently known and reported resources and reserves of uranium are found in a number of countries across six continents. Moreover, compared with fossil fuels, the small volume of nuclear fuel required to run a reactor makes it easier to establish strategic inventories.

Nuclear power is economically competitive. Nuclear power plants are relatively expensive to build but relatively inexpensive to operate. Moreover, the low share of uranium costs in total generating costs means that significant volatility in uranium costs results in only minor volatility in generating costs.


Currently, there are 438 nuclear power reactors in operation worldwide with a total installed capacity of 374,301MW, and 71 nuclear power reactors under construction. Many countries with existing nuclear power programs (Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Rep., France, India, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, South Africa, Ukraine, UK, USA) have plans to build new power reactors (beyond those now under construction). The industry is also experiencing a boon of newcomer countries that have expressed an intention to embark on nuclear power programmes. Kenya is among those nations that also include Turkey, Belarus, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, Ghana, Tunisia, Uganda and Tanzania. The United Arab Emirates, despite its oil resources, is currently building nuclear power plants.


In order to realize the development agenda stipulated in Kenya Vision 2030, studies have shown that the country will require more than 17,000 MW of electricity by 2030. Currently the country is generating more than 2300MW from various energy sources including hydro, geothermal, thermal and wind. Under the 5000MW plus initiative, coal and gas will be tapped alongside geothermal and wind. This will raise the country’s generation capacity to almost 7000MW by 2017. Be that as it may, the country would still have a deficit even if all the domestic energy resources such as geothermal were fully exploited. Thus the country would need alternative sources to help realize Vision 2030. Based on these premises, nuclear energy has been identified as a stable, efficient and reliable source of electricity that will produce base load power to steer industrial development, stimulate economic growth, create jobs and above all, better the lives and lot of Kenyans.


Studies have demonstrated that it is cheaper to generate electricity from nuclear energy than from crude oil. The crude oil discovered in Turkana will be more economical for export and foreign exchange earnings than for generating electricity locally.


Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate its phasing out of nuclear power by 2022. Subsequently, reactors that started operation in 1980 or earlier were shut down. However, the decision was not based on any safety assessment. If Germany were to proceed with its nuclear phase-out policy and maintain carbon emission reduction, it would need to import about 20,000 MW of electricity as base load by 2020. Following this nuclear policy, France, Poland and Russia are anticipating increased electricity exports to Germany, mostly from nuclear energy.

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was an eye opener to nuclear industry players with regard to occurrence of nuclear accidents. Although it was a unique situation, the accident has led to further scrutiny of nuclear facilities thereby decreasing the chances of nuclear accidents occurring around the world. Current reactor designs have enhanced safety features. This, coupled with stringent regulations, has greatly diminished the probability of such accidents.


The nuclear power programme will create jobs locally both directly and indirectly. Human resource planning shows that over 5,000 workers will be directly involved in design, siting, bidding and construction of the nuclear power plant, majority of whom will be drawn from the local labour pool. Other jobs will be created in affiliated institutions such as the regulatory body, research institutes and nuclear training centres. Indirectly, it is expected that increase in power generation capacity will trigger industrial growth therefore creating more job opportunities for local people.


A country can purchase low enriched uranium fuel from international suppliers. Currently, IAEA is in the process of establishing a uranium fuel bank. This is meant to increase assurance of fuel supply and give more options for countries interested in peaceful use of nuclear energy like Kenya.

Supply of spare parts is specified during the bidding process. Contractual negotiations with the successful bidder should include supply of reactor components and maintenance services by the vendor during the operating lifetime of the nuclear power plant.


According to the classification adopted by IAEA, small modular reactors have an electric power output of less than 300 MW; medium sized reactors have an electric power output of between 300 and 700 MW; and large reactors have an electric power output of between 700 and 1,700 MW.


Yes. Kenya will use internationally acceptable criteria for reactor technology assessment; Common User Considerations (CUC) and Utility Requirements Design (URD), which will define the country’s considerations for the reactor type. A nuclear reactor supplier will be required to meet the considerations before concluding contract negotiations. This will ensure that the country gets a suitable nuclear reactor for its power plant.


Nuclear power is environment-friendly. It is among the lowest carbon dioxide emitters when emissions throughout the entire life cycle are considered.

Nuclear power contributes to energy supply security. Currently known and reported resources and reserves of uranium are found in a number of countries across six continents. Moreover, compared with fossil fuels, the small volume of nuclear fuel required to run a reactor makes it easier to establish strategic inventories.

Nuclear power is economically competitive. Nuclear power plants are relatively expensive to build but relatively inexpensive to operate. Moreover, the low share of uranium costs in total generating costs means that significant volatility in uranium costs results in only minor volatility in generating costs.


Currently, there are 438 nuclear power reactors in operation worldwide with a total installed capacity of 374,301MW, and 71 nuclear power reactors under construction. Many countries with existing nuclear power programs (Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Rep., France, India, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, South Africa, Ukraine, UK, USA) have plans to build new power reactors (beyond those now under construction). The industry is also experiencing a boon of newcomer countries that have expressed an intention to embark on nuclear power programmes.  Kenya is among those nations that also include Turkey, Belarus, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, Ghana, Tunisia, Uganda and Tanzania. The United Arab Emirates, despite its oil resources, is currently building nuclear power plants.